Everything You Know About Our Solar System Could Be Wrong

Times are a changing! The average person was taught in school that there are only nine planets in our solar system. Students were even taught clever ways to recite the planets in order from closest to the sun to the furthest: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Now, textbooks illustrate a much different view of our galaxy. As technology becomes more advanced, so does our understanding of the worlds around us. Each day we find new miraculous things about the solar system. Our solar system has gone from 9 planets to 8 and now potentially as much as 24.

To the surprise of many, the last time we had an accurate planetoid count was back in 1850! Despite the primitive astrological devices, they could see the galaxy. They did not have the light pollution we have today and may have even had an easier time seeing the stars. Back then, they had 23 planets in their records. The dwarf planets Ceres, Vesta, Makemake, and Eris were just of few of the listed members that are now hitting headlines again. As people began seeing patterns in space they were able to better categorize the celestial bodies. Eventually, the list was reduced to the 9 we have had for decades.

The solar system as we know it was turned upside down because of the planet Pluto. Pluto has always been sort-of a black sheep in the cosmic family. Scientists have debated fervently about its status because of its small size; specialists have regularly found comets bigger. Pluto is the furthest planet in our system; it is in an area called the Kuiper Belt. Since Pluto had its own satellite (or moon for those who are not space pros) it was considered a planet. Beyond that, scientists could not unanimously agree on anything. In 1970 there was a discovery of a larger planet called Eris, and it brought up more questions about Pluto. Finally after much debate, the International Astrological Union (IAU) finally set things straight. They made an official definition of what is needed to be a “planet” in 2006.

The three classifications were interesting to say the least. A planet has to orbit around the sun, which Pluto does. It has to have sufficient mass to assume a nearly round shape, or hydrostatic equilibrium for space buffs. Finally it has to “clear its neighborhood”. Clearing the neighborhood essentially means that it is gravitationally dominant and it has no competing planets in its rotation. This last classification is what excluded Pluto as a planet because Pluto shares its space with several other “planets” and all the larger objects in the Kuiper belt. It also has a satellite or moon, called Charon, which is so similar in size that they are often called “double planet system”. According to the experts, this changes Pluto’s status to a dwarf planet. Still, the plot thickens, and Pluto has not totally been removed from the roster yet.

Instead of ousting the planet entirely and causing a ruckus, the IAU has decided to keep Pluto in our solar system. However, they felt that if they are to add “planetoids” they needed to add them all and that invited five new names into the list. So far, the request has been officially accepted for three: Ceres, Eris and Pluto. The other two are still working their way through red tape and probably tears of joy for finally being noticed. Makemake and Haumea share residency in the Kuiper Belt with Pluto. The IAU has actually accepted all five as dwarf planets, but they are not added to the list of solar system planets yet. There is a surprising reason for this; so far there is a list of candidates that is 703 “planets” long. It would be very difficult to convince any school board to accept the new list of 703 planets, or even 50 planets. Teaching children about the solar system could become an arduous task on an already overworked system. In a time when there are many battles in the education system, the planets of the solar system fall short of most important.

Everything we know about the amount of planets may be wrong, but there is still more to this twisted story. Recent scientific discovery has left the building, and allowed the city of Chicago to speak. The Chicago council has decided to rule that the laws IAU has set forth, do not apply in Illinois. Pluto is still a planet according to their law. Apparently space, logic and time are not out of the range of minor law.

Our existence is an amazing thing. We are discovering new things every day. Astronomy scientists have officially reported that they discovered and categorized over 1,233 planets this year. They have found a planetoid made entirely of diamond. The found an inhabitable planet virtually identical to earth. We landed on Mars! Every day is an opportunity to learn and every learning opportunity is promoting further discovery of the place we call home: our solar system.

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Understanding Online Wine Buying Regulations and How To Order Wine Online

In our continuing effort to provide online wine consumer education, included in this segment is a break down of different wine shipping state classifications. We also have included wine delivery tips to ensure your bottle arrives as if it came right from the warehouse.

Buying Wine Online – State Shipping Laws and Delivery

Reciprocal States: Forming strategic alliances, many states now allow incoming and outgoing wine shipments to consumers from member states. Bills passed in these states ensure that consumers and retailers can ship between their borders for the common benefit.

States that form this reciprocal agreement include: California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Limited States: These states can receive incoming wine shipments, but are still under regulation. Common limits include a maximum quantity allowed and the exercise of extended taxation.

States with limited wine shipment include: Alaska, Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington D.C., and Wyoming.

Prohibited States: These states may require a special license for receiving wine deliveries. Depending on the state laws, receiving wine from carriers may be deemed a misdemeanor or a felony if note a special permit holder.

These states include: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Utah.

International: Using air freight shipping, many stores now offer international shipping. The most common and compatible international destination is Japan.

But I live in one of these states and these laws haven’t affected me?

As with any relatively new industry, retailers are finding ways to effectively skate around the law. By utilizing middlemen and coming to warehousing agreements, retailers are finding new streams to get your order to your door the safest way possible. Utilizing multiple warehouses in multiple states provides the retailer the option to accept more orders and comply with differing state legislations. Even though you order from a store in Pennsylvania, your product could be shipped from a partner or subsidiary warehouse in California to comply with laws.

Third party logistic companies are a growing trend to satisfy the markets shipping needs. A prime example is New Vine Logistics who can legally ship wine to 43 states.

Another reason to the lack of uniformed shipping policies on retail sites is the means in which they transfer ownership. The most common phrasing seen on most retailers Terms & Conditions is similar to:

Title to, and ownership of, all wine purchased on this site passes from ‘retailer’ to the ‘purchaser’ in the state of ‘retailer’s state.’ The purchaser takes all responsibility for shipping the purchased wine from ‘retailer’s state’ to his/her home state. By arranging for transportation of the wine, ‘retailer’ is providing a service to, and acting on behalf of the ‘purchaser.’ By using transportation services from ‘retailer,’ the purchaser is representing that he/she is acting in a fashion compliant with his/her local and state laws regarding the purchase, shipping and delivery of wine.”

This allows them to say they sold the goods to you in their home state and helped you arrange a shipping service to mail the wine. A purchase is recognized when they charge your credit card in store, which is prior to the item being packaged and shipped. This allows them to pass title and ownership of the wine to the purchaser in the retailer’s state. Using these terms allows them to bend the current wine shipment laws, by attempting to release themselves from any association to the goods once title is transferred and they are in the courier’s hands.

Please note however that not all sites are worded like this. Some retailers adhere to the strictest shipping and sales standards. Using a service such as this makes the good transferable upon receipt at your location. For example Wine.com, recognizes the legal transfer of goods once you sign and accept the package. They handle any courier discrepancies or insurance claims directly. Shopping through their site may limit your range of shipping options and product availability to your area, but they maintain policies to keep in accordance with local laws.

We have compiled a list of authorized online retailers and the states they will ship to at ClassicWines.com.

Common carriers that ship most online wine orders are FedEx, UPS and DHL. By law, alcohol cannot be shipped to PO Boxes nor APO/FPO Addresses. Standard practice for these authorized shipping companies is to require and adult over the age of 21 to sign for the package with photo ID required. Couriers will not leave packages unattended at your location for any reason. Package comments such as “leave at front door” will be ignored as these couriers are specially trained to handle alcohol deliveries.

Aside from age and signature verification, the shipping process is the same as with common goods. In the process, as with UPS and FedEx standards, your courier will provide three (3) separate delivery attempts on consecutive days. After this time, packages are held at your local distribution plant while the courier will research its status with the sender or receiver.

On day five (5) the package will be marked as ‘Undeliverable.’ This means the shipment will be returned to sender. Upon return, most retailers will pass the return shipping expense to your credit card on file as is customary in most online ordering policies.

Don’t fret there are ways to avoid this route.

1. Try having the packaged shipped to your business or another residential location where someone over 21 can receive the package.
2. Use the online tracking tools available by your courier. These can help you make sure someone is available to receive the on the date estimated by your provider.
3. Go express! Express delivery services can guarantee what day the item will be at your door. Specialty services can even guarantee a time frame at which they will arrive.
4. Even though a delivery attempt failed, most packages are sent back to the distribution center in the early evening.

These locations can be found on the shippers website and most are open and staffed until later in the evening. They welcome walk-ins, but make sure you bring the tracking number and any documentation left by the courier at your door.

Many sites offer more than wine, such as stemware, accessories and gift baskets. Any shipment that contains wine adheres to these shipping policies; however, other items can be shipped to virtually any location.

Mammograms Are Not Safe!

What is manifestly and patently absent from the histrionic rhetoric of Breast Cancer Awareness Month is the role that our continually expanding toxic environment plays in the development of breast, as well as other cancers. Plastics and other estrogen mimickers, pesticides, herbicides and fungicides in addition to the long list of numerous carcinogenic compounds now routinely released into our environment might lead some to ‘connect the dots’.

Only about 3%, of the more than 75,000 chemicals in regular use today, have actually been tested for in terms of their overall safety and carcinogenicity. Furthermore, since it is a well established fact that living close to toxic waste disposal areas increases the incidence of breast cancer more than 6-fold as does having well manicured and “pest free” lawns.

It is unfathomable how this data does not constitute the main topic of discussion and serve to target dollars into truly preventable areas of research. When the American Cancer Society fails to mention the role of environmental factors on cancer prevention, it becomes clear that the same people who sit on chemical and pharmaceutical industry boards’ of directors also control the direction, content and extent of public awareness and subsequent dialogue.

Fifty years ago, an American woman’s risk of developing breast cancer was one in twenty, whereas she now has an almost one in seven risk and could, actually develop it much earlier in life; now routinely putting young mothers in their graves before they celebrate their thirtieth-second birthday.

Mammograms have become so prevalent that to the average American, they are synonymous with breast cancer screening. In fact, when a physician orders a breast ultrasound as an initial, harmless screening tool, he/she receives a call from the radiologist explaining that an ultrasound cannot be performed until the results of a breast mammogram have been obtained.

One would think that the explicit goal of annual breast screening would be to prevent death and not merely detect whether cancer is present or not. Although mammography can and does detect some early malignancies, most of these are well known NOT TO BE lethal. Although, once one of these lesions is discovered, the medical drones immediately initiate their routine set of well-established tactics to ignite the primal fear of impending death. This covetous methodology is fully prepared with a robust measure of intimidation to overwhelm the psycho-emotional defenses of the newly identified “target”, if she has any desire to consider other options or even to obtain some clarity in this rapidly escalating, horrific nightmare. Before this bewildered woman has a chance to assimilate what is happening, she finds herself undergoing a breast biopsy while being told categorically that she must submit to surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, that is, if she wants to live. Her dreams and all of her daily agendas quickly vanish as a barrage of unimaginably cruel words gush out of mouths without eyes in monotonal, robotic rhythms spoken with such calculating conviction that this once well adjusted, self reliant woman is suddenly transformed into a helpless, vulnerable and whimpering victim of the sorcery that has become the voice of institutionalized, corporate medicine.

Tragically, unlike the microscopic lesions that initiated this kaleidoscopic barrage of diagnostic testing, these mandated “treatments” ARE lethal.

Mammograms were deceptively pushed onto an unsuspecting public without any professional oversight or sustained objections by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the early 1970s. This happened in spite of the fact that in 1974, professor Malcolm Pike of the University of Southern California, School of Medicine told the NCI that by “giving a woman under age 50 a mammogram on a routine basis is close to unethical”.

Moreover, in 1978, Irwin J.S. Bross., Director of Biostatistics at Rosewell Park memorial Institute for Cancer Research stated, “The women should have been given the information about the hazards of radiation… The exposure of a quarter of a million persons to something which could do more harm than good was criminal and it was supported by money from the federal government and the American Cancer Society”.

By the 1980s, the ACS and NCI modified their position by recommending mammograms for women under the age of 50 in spite of the fact that not only was there no evidence suggesting that early, routine mammography would save lives, but quite the contrary; the routine use of mammography would most likely be harmful. The esteemed British medical journal, the Lancet, exposed these facts in the public arena, as early as 1985. The article clearly and unambiguously pointed out that the recommendation for the routine use of mammograms was not only unsupported by research but that the practice could quite conceivably cause cancer.

“Over 280,000 women were recruited without being told that no benefit of mammography had been shown in a controlled trial for women below 50, and without being warned about the potential risk of induction of breast cancer by the test which was supposed to detect it… and in women below 50… mammography gives no benefit… ” In 1992, Samuel Epstein, professor at the University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago and many other authorities in cancer warned the public by stating unequivocally that the recommendations of the ACS and NCI were “unethical and invalid”. Dr Epstein went on to write: “The high sensitivity of the breast, especially in young women to radiation induced cancer was known by 1970. Nevertheless, the establishment then screened some 300,000 women with X-ray dosages so high as to increase breast cancer risk by up to 20 % in women aged 40 to 50 who were mammogrammed annually… The crimes described were crimes. They were not errors of judgment. They were not differences of scientific opinion. They were conscious, chosen, politically expedient acts by a small group of people for the sake of their own power, prestige and financial gain, resulting in suffering and death for millions of women. They fit the classification of ‘crimes against humanity'”

“This projects up to a 20% increased cancer risk for a woman who, in the 1970s, received 10 annual mammograms of an average two RADs each. In spite of this, up to 40% of women over 40 have had mammograms since the mid-1960s, some annually and some with exposures of 5 to 10 RADs in a single screening from older, high-dose equipment.” The Politics Of Cancer by Samuel S Epstein MD

Throughout the 1990s and up to the present time, many authorities have come out publicly to explicitly present these mind boggling facts to the public at large, including Dr. I. Craig Henderson, director of the clinical cancer center at the university of California in San Francisco; Dr. Robert McLelland, a radiologist at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Burton Goldberg, Terry A Rondberg, DC, Ralph Moss, PhD, Gary Null, PhD and then, the Lancet again printed another expose. But all of this has been to no avail since the criminal recommendations of these two “pillars” of the scientific community; the NCI and ACS have never deviated except to lower the recommended age at which screening “should” be initiated. In 1999, the entire scam in all of its horrid detail was published in the Journal of Alternative Medicine but, unfortunately, there are not many people who even know that this journal exists.

One of the only acknowledged causes of cancer by the ACS is radiation and they quite explicitly state that there is no safe level of exposure. This esteemed organization not only targets 40 year old women for routine mammography, but they even suggest that women as young as 25 years of age, now begin routine screening under certain circumstances. Moreover, there has been a dramatic increase (328%) in DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) since mammography has become the principal mode of screening with 200% of this increase allegedly directly resulting from mammograms.

Evidence has been released by the NCI suggesting that mammography will cause 75 cases of breast cancer for every 15 that it diagnosis! One has to scratch their head in absolute horror and shock when they consider that there exists a debate regarding whether or not to utilize an instrument that is known to cause cancer, in order to diagnose cancer. This is all the more poignant when one considers that a recent Canadian study found the mortality rate from breast cancer in younger women was 52% greater for those who underwent annual mammographic screening. And it goes on and on.

As if all of that were not enough, the accuracy of mammography is completely unacceptable with false positive reporting as high as 20% especially in premenopausal women. “False positive” means that the person is told that they have cancer when, in fact they don’t. The repercussions of this were discussed previously.

Although there is some evidence that early detection may improve survival in post-menopausal women (under 69 years, though) “no such benefit is demonstrable for younger women” says Dr. Epstein. And, as Dr. Charles Simone (former clinical associate of NCI) summarizes, “mammograms increase the risk for developing breast cancer and raise the risk of spreading or metastasizing an existing growth”. This last statement is obvious to anyone who has seen or experienced a mammogram. Sensitive breast tissue is painfully squashed (traumatized) and then irradiated! Interesting, though tragic, these same pundits tell their breast cancer patients to avoid lymphatic massage because it could spread the cancer.

Since it is fairly routine to obtain a breast ultrasound in order to corroborate the findings of a mammogram, why not use this safe diagnostic screening tool (ultrasound) routinely instead of one that produces the very disease that it is being used to identify

There is really no mystery regarding the causes of the epidemic seen in breast cancer in the United States nor, for that matter, in the worldwide pandemic. Toxins, toxins, toxins… in our food, water, air, clothing, homes, workplaces, automobiles and public areas. Toxins are the predominant chemical found in most consumer products outweighing the active ingredients. And, without reading or conducting any research, one can dramatically diminish their own personal risk of contracting breast or any other cancer, by simply eating and drinking non-toxic substances in their original and whole form, carefully selecting the environment in which they will be living, from clothing to paint on the walls to carpets to automobiles to cosmetics and hygiene products. Also, it is necessary to avoid or resolve toxic relationships, learn to sleep appropriately for our species, learn how to mitigate the effects of stress through meditation, laugh with friends and, of course regular enjoyable exercise.

How to Get a VA Home Loan – Who Is Eligible?

There are different classifications of people that qualify for a VA Home Loan. The classifications are:

Current active members of the Guard or Reserves
Discharged members of the Guard or Reserves
Active duty military
Regular military discharged veterans

Individuals that are current active members of the Guard or Reserves need to request from their commanding officer a statement of service. The commanding officer needs to date and sign the statement and it should be prepared on official military letterhead. The following information will need to appear on the letter:

Your full name
Your Social Security Number
Enlistment date of Guard or Reserve Duty
Must designate “active” and not currently a part of an inactive or control group.

Discharged members of the Guard or Reserves can supply a copy of the report of separation as well as a copy of the record of service. An alternative is to complete NGB Form 22 or points statement. If you choose to use the points statement then it must indicate that you participated in duty for at least 6 years and you received an honorable discharge.

For those individuals that are currently full time active in the military a signed statement of service from the commanding officer is required. This letter must appear on official military letterhead and include the following information:

Your full name
Your birth date
Your Social Security number and/or your service number
The date in which you enlisted
Your current duty status
Must indicate that you have “No Time Lost.” (NOTE: if you have lost time, the time must be listed)
For those currently serving in the national guard or the reserves you must indicate if you currently served under title 10 or title 32

People that were former Regular Military and have received their discharge must provide a copy of form DD214. This form can be downloaded from the following site: http://www.archives.gov

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Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/David_R_Leonard/387060

Wabash Natives

American Indians entered the region south of the Great Lakes nearly 10,000 years ago. Some early sites along the Wabash have been preserved and investigated extensively by archaeological teams over the last 75 years. The people that we know the most about were cultures that established permanent locations along the Wabash and its tributaries. Researchers who want to get to know these cultures can form opinions based on a variety of evidence based in archaeology and later, the historical record.

The timeline for cultures in the region of the Wabash starts with the Paleo period which extends as far back perhaps as 27,000 BP (Before present) to 8,000 BC. – these were the earliest human inhabitants of North America up to the end of the last glaciation period. Archaic is the next period classification extending from roughly 8,000 to 1,000 BC. During this period, agriculture began and these people domesticated a large number of crops and lived in semi-permanent villages living as much by farming as by hunting. The next period has been classified as the Woodland period from about 1,000 BC to 1600 A.D. This is a period of significant change when pottery making was established. These people, in general, had more settled lives and dependency on agriculture grew tremendously. They began to build small mounds for burial purposes. In the southeast and in the region of the Wabash a culture known as Mississippian developed. Mississippian Mound Builders extended their culture into the Wabash/Ohio Valley from roughly 900 AD to 1400 AD. These folks existed in large complex communities including Angel Mounds just east of present day Evansville.

It is generally believed that a form of chiefdom operated within the Mississippian period. These chiefdoms, operating out of temple mound complexes, apparently controlled specific territories usually associated with a defined floodplain environment. Chiefs were responsible for the redistribution of food between outlying communities and the home community. Whether these chiefs were able to control exchanges of goods within their territory and with other chiefdoms, employ full-time artisans and specialists, or function as both the religious and political head, are questions requiring more research. Caborn-Welborn phase in the history of the Wabash was a culture primarily in the area near Hovey Lake west of Evansville. These people came out of the decline of the Angel Mounds site and traded or interacted with late prehistoric populations to the north and northwest which scientists call Oneota and south and southeast in the central Mississippi valley and eastern Tennessee. The native people who lived in this region, located their communities –hamlets and villages along a 40-mile stretch of the Ohio just east of the juncture with the Wabash. The Vincennes Phase was another Mississippian cultural site nearly 100 acres in size and had about 12 platform mounds in Illinois. The Merom Site in Sullivan County, Indiana, located on a 5-acre bluff above the Wabash is perhaps connected to this culture dating around 1200 AD. It was enclosed on two sides by stone and earthen walls and on the west by deep natural ravines leading to the Wabash River.

Due to a shift from complex villages and chiefdoms for reasons still not clear and the general abandonment of the region of the Wabash in the mid 17th century, a major fracture in our working knowledge of the southern Great Lakes and Ohio Valley exists. A series of wars and skirmishes during this time between factions of the Iroquois league who invaded this region over the extirpation of the beaver and fur bearing creatures from their homelands with the people of the lower Great Lakes causes gaps in the archaeological record that are not easily bridged. It is worth noting that a century later, leaders from historical tribes such as the Miami make speeches that are put into the historical record that reflect their belief that they were the former occupants of this region prior to the Iroquois Wars. This was said with little or no objection from dozens of other tribal elders and leaders present. It is known that by the end of the 17th century, the French were making contact with Miami, Piankeshaw, Wea, Illini and other Algonquin people who seemingly were located in an overcrowded region north of the Wabash in Wisconsin. They were starving, and living in far less than ideal conditions. Many of these groups including the Miami and Illinis were not native to Wisconsin due to observations made by early French explorers that these groups lacked winter gear such as snowshoes and other cold winter devices.

By 1679, a large group of Miami were already living on the south bend of the St. Joseph River of Lake Michigan. Another portion of the Miami or perhaps a political division of them relocated to Starved Rock, Illinois on the Illinois River in 1682. The Wea moved to the lower Wabash as early as 1691, about 20 miles below the mouth of the Tippecanoe River. The Crane Division or Atchatchakangouen moved from the Kankakee Region of the St. Joseph River of Lakes Michigan to the headwaters of the Maumee at Fort Wayne roughly around 1687. This was not far from the headwaters of the Wabash and was on the northern end of a portage between Detroit and the lower Wabash region. As French forts were constructed in the Wabash valley, the native populations grew to depend on these sources of goods and thus places such as Fort Wayne, Lafayette, Vincennes and Terre Haute became home to major divisions of the Miami and related groups such as the Piankeshaw.

Names that are synonymous with the history of the Wabash include Tecumseh of the Shawnee who later relocated his followers to a site near Battleground, Indiana along with his brother Tenskwatawa the Prophet; Little Turtle of the Miami who became the greatest war captain and diplomat ever recorded in the history of the Miami people; and Winnemac of the Potawatomi, a portion of whose tribe relocated in the early 19th century north of the Wabash. Chief John Richardville and his son-in-law, Topeah or Francis Lafontaine controlled the Fort Wayne-Wabash region for more than 50 years. Pacan, was a major player and head of the Crane band until his death in 1815. Blue Jacket’s Shawnee having been pushed out of their Ohio homelands established a connection in the upper Wabash in the late 18th century. Frances Slocum became a white captive of first the Lenape and then married a Miami thus establishing her place in history on the Mississinewa, a tributary of the Wabash. Kakima Burnett and her descendants came to the Wabash after establishing an affluent trade business in the region of the St. Joseph in the latter half of the 18th century. Kakima contributed to the survival and even the successful Potawatomi fur trade of the early 19th century in the northern Wabash region.

The name of the Wabash itself comes from “Wabashiki”– a Miami word meaning White Water. Salamonie River takes its name from the Miami word for bloodroot. Lagro and Wabash are small towns along the banks of the Wabash. Lagro is named for a Miami chief that had a village there in the late 18th century. Miami County obviously takes its name from the tribe that found its home near there. Paoli, Patoka and Peoria are all place names that have their linguistic roots in the Miami dialect of Algonquin.

It is not just place names that modern society recognizes as having an origin in Native culture. Some of the most profound changes to Euro-American culture came about due to Native agricultural practices including but not limited to the growing of corn, beans, squash, potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco and popcorn. Our modern grocery store shelves would be significantly altered if it were not for the Native contributions. Natives established trails and roads over animal paths and those same roads are used today as modern highways. Many modern cities have their origins as Native villages on the Wabash. Fort Wayne to Evansville and nearly every town in between has grown where a Native village was once located. Would the French have established posts in the Wabash valley if there was no one to trade with? The largest Mississippian mound village in the United States is located only 130 miles west of the Wabash and via trade routes, political ties and cultural traditions, this site is directly related to Angel Mounds with a population between 20,000-30,000 which at its height around 1000 AD was three to four times larger than any European city of the time.

Complex plant fiber harvesting, processing and twining techniques have been well established and used by Wabash Natives probably since the glacial ice retreated but most certainly reaching a peak in the Mississippian period. This use can be seen in the inlaid designs on pottery vessels. An abundance or surplus of this textile material was available for use in pottery design and probably served to establish the direction of trade and commerce in the Wabash Valley more than 500 years ago. Samples of intact fiber bags have been found in the White River dating to 300 BC. These were not the products of primitive savages. These were forward thinking, skilled people who established themselves on inland waterways to make use of the abundance of plants and foods, and other resources that were located in and around the region of the Wabash.

Sheryl Hartman is the founder and Managing Director of Piankeshaw Trails Educational Park Services, Inc. a non-profit organization with a mission to educate her audience and especially school children about the culture of the woodland Indians. She has been doing research and producing educational hands on Native American Programs for schools and audiences since 1980. She has authored several books including Indian Clothing of the Great Lakes, 1740-1840 in 1988 by Eagle View Publishing and in 2008 Natives Along the Wabash, a Teacher Resource Book with illustrations by Steve Tucker, President of Piankeshaw Trails and professional artist and retired art teacher. Sheryl and Steve have a website to promote this latest publication by Lotus Petal Publishing. Go to: [http://www.wabashnatives.com] and for more information on hands on educational woodland Indian programs for schools, special events and museums can go to our site at http://piankeshawtrailsedu.org which will link you to other sites with still more research and information.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Sheryl_Hartman/211986

Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio – Oak Park, Illinois

Making our way from Unity Temple we come to a neighborhood off Chicago Avenue that is dominated by architectural marvels. Sprinkled throughout a smattering of Queen Anne and Italianate homes are several of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie masterpieces. Before you get to those, though, you notice a sprawling Shingle Style house (Shingle style is basically a classification of Queen Anne style) that appears to have been built at different times. The large brown house is known as the Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio and it was the location of his early 20th century Oak Park firm.

1889 – Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio

Though the building is clearly not a Prairie style building, the influence is obvious, especially on the Chicago Avenue facing facade where the library and studio are located. Wright designed and had the house built in 1889, via a loan from his then-employer architect Louis Sullivan. In the coming days, we will see how this loan has led to an interesting scholarly contradict about the relationship of Wright and Sullivan.

The Studio portion of the building, facing Chicago Avenue

Wright made major additions and renovations in 1895, and in 1898, which was when the Studio and its connecting corridor was added. The 1898 area, in my opinion, was one of the most amazing parts of the interior; an interior which throughout doesn’t necessarily reflect the historical roots of the exterior style.

Wright designed art glass

From 1909 on Wright’s studio was no longer located in the house, the studio becoming a residence for his first wife and younger children. Later, it was converted into an apartment building until the National Trust for Historic Preservation acquired the property in 1974 and began an intense restoration. Today, the home and studio is restored to its 1909 appearance, and operated as a museum by the Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust. If you have the time and means, I highly recommend you take the tour, current rates are available on the Preservation Trust’s website.

Restoration on original reliefs on the Chicago Avenue studio entrance

The Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. In 1976, the U.S. Department of the Interior declared the home and studio a National Historic Landmark. Detailed information can be found in the various links provided below.

Online Resources
*Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust
*Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio: National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form (PDF); Combo document – NRHP nom form p. 1-17 and Oak Park Landmark Nomination Form p. 17-33 (PDF); National Historic Landmark Summary Information
*Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio (Photos) National Historic Landmark Photo set (PDF); Free use image gallery (some interior shots); Historic American Buildings Survey Narrative Information (with links to photography), IHPA Property Information Report (1981 Photos at the end of the page)

Article written by Andy McMurray a freelance writer and photographer based in DeKalb, Illinois. He has worked at DeKalb¼s Daily Chronicle, The Midweek, and the Northern Illinois University newspaper, the Northern Star. Known variously around the Internet as Dr. Gonzo or IvoShandor, Andy’s wide ranging interests and knowledge in history, architecture, historic preservation, art and science have allowed McMurray to excel in penning both fiction and non-fiction pieces. In addition to pursuing a fiction career Andy has written and photographed extensively for English Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:IvoShandor

Article submitted by Clinton Rushing an Illinois home inspector currently endeavoring in consultation, previous owner of #1 Good Home Inspection Inc. currently operating [http://www.1GoodHomeInspection.com] as a resource for real estate and home improvement information.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Andy_McMurray/254488

Lolo Fernandez: A Footballing Genius – A Biography

Lolo Fernandez: One of Latin America’s Most Popular Footballers

Throughout his 12-year career with the Peruvian side, between 1935 and 1947, Lolo Fernández was not a World Cup player such as Obdulio Varela of Uruguay and Brazil’s Leonidas da Silva. Despite all this, he is still an inspirational leader in the history of Peru’s soccer. On the field, he did a lot to stimulate the men’s football in all of the country, one of the most soccer-crazed places on the planet. He was very popular in the outback of Peru, from Trujillo and Ica to Puno and Cajamarca. His passion for his homeland was reflected in all facets of his life.

He began to play soccer before it was a professional sport on Peruvian soil. Football — the world’s most popular sport— was imported by Britain’s expatriates in the second half of the 19th century and is known as Peru’s national pastime.

The oldest and most powerful of three soccer-playing Fernández brothers, he — known affectionately as “Lolo”— is considered as one of the country’s greatest athletes of all time, along with Edwin Vásquez Cam (Olympic gold medalist at the 1948 London Summer Games), Cecilia Tait Villacorta (among the world’s top volleyball players in the past century), Juan Carlos “Johnny” Bello (winner of 12 Bolivarian titles in the early 1970s), and Gabriela “Gaby” Pérez del Solar (silver medal in women’s volleyball at the 1988 South Korea Games).

During Fernández’s tenure with the national side, the Andean republic gained one South American Cup (1939) and one Bolivarian Championship (1938). At the club level, he earned the Peruvian League Cup — nationwide competition— six times with his club Universitario de Deportes, having scored a club-record of 157 goals — a record that remains unique. Also, he was the top goal-scorer in the country’s top division of football teams in 1932 (11 goals), 1933 (9), 1934 (9), 1939 (15), 1940 (15), 1942 (11), and 1945 (16). Additionally, he is one of best-known Peruvians Olympians of all time. He holds the distinction of being the first (and only) top player from that nation to compete in the modern Olympiad.

Peru’s First Genuine Top-Class Athlete

Since then, the apex of his career came in the late 1930s when he was the hero of Peru’s South American Football Confederation Cup win, putting the Peruvian flag on the sporting map and making him one of the most exciting players in the game. A Lolo Fernández-inspired Peru defeated Uruguay in the gold-medal match, a surprise to most fans and sportswriters on the American mainland (Campomar, 2014, Penguin). He had been called up by England’s coach Jack Greenwell. Before the championship, Peru’s sportsmen had never won a continental trophy (equivalent of the European Cup). Previously, this Cañete-born footballer was a member of the 1936 Peruvian Olympic football team, which competed in the Berlin Olympics. Curiously, Western Europe was the first continent to recognize Fernández’s talent. Although his homeland’s squad succumbed in a controversial game against Austria (a match they should have won) during the Men’s Olympic Games Soccer Tournament— the unofficial world cup of soccer at that time— he was regarded as one of the South America’s most celebrated sportsmen (Hilton, 2011).

Back in Peru, he led his own “soccer revolution” in Universitario de Deportes, winning many top division cups, setting off a wave of explosive emotion in Lima, the nation’s capital. In fact, he was one of the first superstars of that club. The national squad and his club had been his first loves. He could have played abroad, but decided to play for the Peruvian side and the Limean club, one of the nation’s premier clubs (Newton, 2011).

In fact, Lolo Fernández was Peru’s first genuine top-class sportsman in the world of sports in a time when some Spanish-speaking republics began to produce world-famous competitors. Already, in 1928, Argentina’s fighter Victorio Avendaño had caught the public’s attention with his Olympic gold medal in the Games of the IX Olympiad in Holland’s capital city of Amsterdam (Grasso, 2013). Two years later, the Soccer World Cup was won by the host country Uruguay— called the Celeste. Meanwhile, the men’s shooting contingent of Brazil picked up a total of three medals at the 1920 Antwerp Olympics in tiny Belgium (Almanaque Mundial, 1976). On the other hand, on March 19, 1938, four Ecuadorans — Ricardo Planas, Carlos Luis Gilbert, Luis Alcivar Elizalde and Abel Gilbert— swept the gold medals at the Swimming South American Tournament (Almanaque Guayaquil, 2003).

The Life and Times of Lolo Fernández

Teodoro Oswaldo Fernández Meyzán was born on May 20, 1913 in San Vicente, Cañete, near Lima, Peru’s capital. He was the seventh of eight children born to Tomas Fernández Cisneros, a farm administrator, and his wife, the former Raymunda Meyzan.

Cañete covers an area of 4,577 km2 — the size of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It lies around 140 km from Lima. This Connecticut-size territory is blessed with a fertile land and is well-recognized for its African-Peruvian culture, cuisine, fruits and birthplace of notable people such as Héctor Chumpitaz (footballer), Caitro Soto (musician), Enrique Verastegui (writer), and Rolando Campos (singer).

Fernández spent his early childhood on a farm in Cañete. Like many Peruvian children, he became fascinated with the game of soccer at an early age. But not everyone applauded that passion, among them his father.

He invested his life in this sport since he played for his hometown club Huracán of Hualcará in the early 1920s. The then little-known player was the first to arrive to the stadium and the last to leave. In his land, he trained with a lot of intensity. The exercise and fresh air made him feel better.

During his first appearance, he led his club to a victory over Alianza San Vicente in a local event in his native Cañete. His debut could not have been better: he scored the winning goal. The date was August 30, 1923. On that occasion, his play (without being paid a salary) impressed his team-mates early on. He was celebrated throughout Cañete, whose people are addicted to football and other Olympic sports as canoeing, boxing, and track-and-field.

Toward the end of the 1920s, he was allowed to leave his home and went to Lima to live with his elder brother, Arturo Fernández, who had played for Universitario de Deportes after being a member of Ciclista Lima. In this context, Lolo, as he was more often known, was introduced to Universitario by Arturo.

In the Peruvian place, his personal life underwent some significant changes. Unanimously elected player by the club’s chairman Placido Galindo, Fernández signed a contract for 120 soles a month. Relations between he and his new club were excellent and friendly since that day.

He kicked off his career with the Lima-based club when he made his official debut on November 29, 1931 during a friendly match against Deportes Magallanes of Chile. Some young athletes would have been intimidated in such situation, but not Lolo. The Lima-based club, with a young side, was the winner. The Peruvian victory was due largely to Fernández’s leadership. He scored the winner against Magallanes in a 1-0 win. Gradually, his talent was recognized by experts, coaches, and sportswriters in his homeland country. As a player, he was without peer in his generation.

An Athlete In Troubled Times

Like many Latino champions such as Alberto Spencer of Ecuador (football),Mateo Flores of Guatemala (track-and-field) and Chino Meléndez of Nicaragua (baseball), Lolo Fernández lived in a country plagued by political violence, poverty, and economic difficulties. Despite these hurdles, he emerged as one of Latin America’s top athletes in the first half of the 20th century.

In the 1930s, his native country had a record of short-lived governments and eight conservative rulers. By 1933, Peru’s military warlord Luis Sánchez Cerro was killed. At the same time, opposition-led demonstrations broke out in Lima in response to an electoral defeat (Loveman, 1999).

During the global financial crisis, the economy fell into chaos, which was vulnerable due to the nation’s dependence on minerals and agricultural products.

Due to these and other reasons, the country’s sport activities had been all but ignored by the governments. Under this atmosphere, Peru was one of the last countries to make its international debut in the Football South American Championship (known as the Copa America later), having competed for the first in the XI Cup in 1927.Similarly, their athletes could not attend the Summer Olympics between 1900 and 1932. But that wasn’t all. Upon competing in Great Britain in 1948, this Spanish-speaking republic did not have Olympic representation until 1956, despite having Pan American gold medalists —among them Julia Sánchez Deza and Edwin Vásquez— and continental champs.

Western Europe: From Spain to Great Britain

As guests of honor, Fernández and other players from Universitario played for Alianza Lima during a tour of Chile in 1933, accumulating wins over Colo Colo, Audax Italiano, Magallanes, and Wanderers. Lolo also played as a special guest for some foreign clubs such Racing Club,Club Atlético Banfield, and Colo Colo.

Between 1933 and 1934, Fernández went as a member of a Peruvian-Chilean contingent —composed of sportsmen from Alianza Lima, Colo Colo, Atlético Chalaco and Universitario– to Western Europe, where he played 33 men’s football matches (compiling 11 wins, 11 draws and 11 losses) against first-class squads from Spain, Germany and the United Kingdom, including Bayern Munich, Newcastle and Barcelona— his first time outside of Latin America (Witzig, 2006). Here, he earned the respect of fans and rivals. Lolo’s performance on the European tour was spectacular: despite his lack of international experience, he accumulated a record of 48 goals!

Berlin: 1936 Summer Olympics

After many obstacles, the Peruvian Olympic team, that included future South American champion Lolo, made a brief but historic trip to Germany to attend the 1936 Summer Games. It was the first time in Olympic history that Peru had sent an athletic contingent to the Summer Games. The nation’s sports officials brought an all-male team to Berlin, with Peruvians competing in aquatics, athletics, diving, basketball, cycling, fencing, modern pentathlon, shooting, and soccer.

There were 22 soccer players and they were Juan Valdivieso Padilla, Alejandro Villanueva, José Morales, Adelfo Magallanes, Víctor Lavalle, Enrique Landa, Eulogio García, Carlos Tovar, Orestes Jordán, Teodoro Fernández, Arturo Fernández, Andrés Alvarez, Arturo Paredes, Segundo Castillo, Teodoro Alcalde, Jorge Alcalde, Miguel Pacheco, Carlos Portal, Raúl Chappel, Pedro Ibañez, Guillermo Pardo, and Víctor Marchena. These players made up the country’s largest delegation in Berlin.

The Lolo’s squad was the first Peruvian team in the Olympic team sports history. Scoring five goals in a 7-2 victory over the Nordic nation of Finland, Fernández played one of his most memorable matches (Campomar, 2014). Without a doubt, he was a genius on the field. Subsequently, they beat Austria (it expected to finish in the top four in these Games). But it wasn’t a clear-cut victory for the Latin American republic (Witzig, 2006).

In the second time, Peru came back and won its match 4-2 after losing to Austria 2-0 in the first time in one of the most controversial games in the history of football (Mandell, 1971). Nonetheless, the Austrian delegation refused to recognize this triumph (Risolo, 2010). They said that Europe’s footballers were threatened by Peru’s attackers during the Olympic match (Murray & Murray, 1998).

Under pressure from Austria, the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) pledged to hold other match (Campomar, 2014).

But the Peruvian dictatorship didn’t allow their countrymen to compete again. In an attempt to try to gain popularity within Peru, the nation’s strongman Oscar Raimundo Benavides forced the Peruvian Olympic Committee to agree to withdraw its delegation from the 1936 Berlin Games (Walters, 2012). Despite everything, Fernández was the second top scorer in the Olympic tournament with five goals, alongside Norway’s sportsman Arne Brustad. A year earlier, Lolo earned his first cap for Peru.

The tournament was won by Italy and was followed by Austria (silver medal), Poland (bronze), Norway (4th), Great Britain (5th),Germany (6th), Peru (7th), Japan (8th), Sweden (9th), USA (10th), Taiwan (11th), Egypt (12th), Hungary (13th), Turkey (14th), Finland (15th) and Luxembourg (last).

When the Olympian delegation arrived back in Lima, they were declared “national heroes” (El Comercio, 2009). In the next year, he married Elvira Fernández Meyer and had two children: Marina and Teodoro.

Lolo and the First Bolivarian Games

Despite missing the XI Olympiad in the German capital of Berlin, Fernández worked relentlessly to take part in the Olympic-type Bolivarian Games. The First Bolivarian Sports Games (one of the oldest multi-sport games of its kind) were held in Colombia’s capital of Bogota in 1938. At that year, all Limeans were anxious to see a national victory. Fortunately, there were good news. Fernández captained the Bolivarian winners by capturing the gold medal, providing a moment of enjoy for Peru’s population.

The 1938 men’s squad was the heavy gold medal favorite on Colombian soil. The victory was scored over squads from Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and the host nation. This accomplishment was greater than any previously achieved by the national squads. Ecuador was bronze and Bolivia won the silver medal.

Before and after the event, Fernández —his first international title outside his own land— brought his energy and passion to the national team.

Peru kicked off its campaign at Bogota’s Universitario Stadium,on August 8, when they beat Colombia 4-2 with goals of Pedro Ibañez (2), Lolo (1) and Teodoro Alcalde (1). In its second Bolivarian match, the Andean country slaughtered Ecuador 9-1 in a spectacular show of football— biggest margin of victory in the history of Peru’s soccer team. The best player was Alcalde (4 goals). On August 14, Peru blanked Bolivia 3-0. Lolo was the pivot of that game with two goals. This remarkable athlete knew what he needed to do to win the match.

On August 17,Venezuela was eliminated from the Games after losing to Peru 2-1. Before the Peruvian delegation left the stadium, they received a standing ovation.

Why one of Latin America’s Greatest Players Never Play in the FIFA World Cup?

Among Latin America’s greatest players during the first half of the 20th century, Fernández was the only one never to have appeared in a World Cup. There are different reasons why he could not compete in the global sporting event in the late 1930s and the 1940s. In 1938, the III World Cup was overshadowed by an Argentina-led boycott that was followed by almost all South American republics ( Reyna & Woitalla,2004). Officially, Peru did not participate in the international boycott, but it declined to send a delegation. SA boycotted that Cup in response to “Eurocentric policy” of FIFA. Europeans had hosted the last event and the next was scheduled to be held in France in that year. In the following decade, the world of sports was hard hit by World War II and the international events were canceled.

Lima: 1939 South American Championship

The year of 1939 saw a new hero in Latin America’s sport. A son of Cañete attracted admiration when he led Peru to win the (XV) South American Championship for the first time following a win against Uruguay, one of the powerhouses in the world of football since the 1910s. Four years ago, the national side failed to make the semis in the regional event at home. In 1937, Peru finished at the bottom of the six-team tournament.

The 1939 national side claimed the first place to defeat Uruguay 2-1 in the finals. It was a proud day for Peru. The country, under British coach Greenwell was a home grown champion (Campomar, 2014, Penguin). On paper, Uruguay’s background made it a strong opponent —three World Championships from 1924 to 1930, including two golds in the modern Olympics.

It was gratifying to see the progress that had made the national side, who were underdogs from the start. Thanks to this win, Peru became the four nation in the continent to win that event (after Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina), well ahead of Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

Fernández was the hero in the Continental Cup on his home soil— his second major international trophy. As well as winning the Most Valuable Player trophy, the Cañete-born striker was the top scorer.

The continental winners were Juan Humberto Valdivieso, Jorge Alcalde, Carlos Tovar, Teodoro Alcalde, César Socarraz, Alberto Baldovino, Pedro Reyes, Víctor Bielich, Juan Quispe, Segundo Castillo, Enrique Perales, Raúl Chapel, Pablo Pasache, Lolo Fernández, Adolfo Magallanes, Jorge Parró, Juan Honores, Pedro Ibañez, Arturo Fernández, Arturo Paredes, Rafael León and Feder Larios.

South American Championships

Back in the 1940s, Fernández, who was nicknamed “the Cannoneer” by the local media due to his aggressive style of play, was member of Peru’s national squad that competed in three South American championships. But he was less successful in these competitions.

Between February 2 and March 4, 1941, the Peruvian contingent participated in the international competition in Santiago (Chile). It was recognized as the unofficial SA Cup. Peru’s 22-man roster included: Gerardo Arce, Manuel Vallejos, Vicente Arce, César Socarraz, Teodoro Fernández, Juan Quispe, Alejandro González, Leopoldo Quiñones, Juan Honores, Carlos Portal, Marcial Hurtado, Enrique Perales, Guillermo Janneau, Roberto Morales, Orestes Jordán, Pedro Magán, Adolfo Magallanes, Máximo Lobatón, and Pedro Luna.

The men’s football tournament was marked by the presence of top-class athletes such as Lolo of Peru, Obdulio Varela of Uruguay, Sergio Livingstone from Chile, and Juan Andrés Marvezzi of Argentina.

The Bolivarian champions didn’t bring home any medals, but Fernández scored three goals and was ranked second to Marvezzi as the tournament’s most prolific scorer (sharing the honor with José Manuel Moreno from Argentina). His homeland’s squad placed fourth in the overall classification, ahead of Ecuador,in the five-team tournament, an event sponsored by the Chilean rule.

On February 9, the Peruvians were defeated by the host nation by a narrow margin (1-0). Shortly thereafter, Argentina won its match against Peru 2-1. The Argentine team was a powerful squad in the Americas and had gained two awards in 1937: The Soccer Pan American Cup in Dallas, Texas (U.S) and SA tournament (as a host country). On February 23, the squad’s star striker Lolo eliminated Ecuador 4-0 and obtained their first points. Fernández scored three goals. Three days later, his homeland’s team, however, could not win their last game. Uruguay won 2-0.The win helped avenge Uruguay’s 1939 loss to Peru.

By 1942, Fernández departed for Uruguay to attend the Latin American tournament (between January 10 and February 7), a year where Brazil was awarded the 1942 World Cup, but the event was cancelled. The men’s soccer of Peru placed a disappointing fifth on Uruguayan soil. The national side was represented by 22 players: Juan Quispe, Antonio Zegarra, Diego Agurto, Juan Soriano, Antonio Biffi, Leopoldo Quiñones, Alberto Delgado, Carlos Portal, Lolo Fernández, Enrique Perales, Luis Guzmán, Pablo Pasache, Teobaldo Guzmán, Tulio Obando, Juan Honores, Roberto Morales, Marcial Hurtado, Pedro Magán, Orestes Jordán, Adolfo Magallanes, Máximo Lobatón, and Pedro Luna.

Following an opening draw with Paraguay (1-1) at the XVIII South American Cup on January 18, Peru suffered defeats against Brazil (2-1) and Argentina (3-1).Over that time, the Brazilian side was a strong rival with a bronze medal in the 1938 global event after his international star Leonidas da Silva (known as the “Black Diamond”) led Brazil to its first wins in a World Cup.

On January 28, the Peruvians dispatched Ecuador 2-1 at Montevideo’s Centenario Stadium, which is the nation’s symbol of sport. In the next days, they had drawn 0-0 with Chile after a 3-0 loss to Uruguay in the 65,000-seater Centenario Stadium, one of the most famous of all soccer stadiums around the globe. The Celeste —Spanish for sky blue due to the color of squad’s shirt— was all but unbeatable and it was seven-time winner of the SA Cup (1916, 1917, 1920, 1923, 1924, 1926 & 1935) (Guevara & Chaname, 1998).

Lolo and his fellow sportsmen did not return to the regional championships until 1947. The Andean republic missed the next two international competitions (1945 & 1946).

In 1947, the Peruvian Soccer Federation sent a Lolo Fernández-led team to Guayaquil (Ecuador) to participate in the international meet. He and his fellow countrymen had drawn with Paraguay (2-2) and Ecuador (0-0), but there were two losses to Chile (2-1) and Argentina (3-2).

In front of over 20,000 persons, on December 20, 1947, Fernández played his last match on foreign soil at Guayaquil’s George Capwell when Peru made a tie of 0-0 with the host nation. He was on Peru’s South American Cup roster at the age of 34. Later on, Colombia —gold in men’s football at the 1946 Central American and Caribbean Games— was outclassed by a Peruvian side without its star Lolo (5-1).

In the 8-team tournament, the men’s side ranked fifth, behind Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay,and Chile. The country’s roster included 22 athletes: Guillermo Valdivieso, Rafael Asca, Carlos Torres, Guillermo Barbadillo, Luis Suárez, Félix Castillo, René Rosasco, Juan Castillo, Marín Reyna, Andrés da Silva, Domingo Raffo, Lolo Fernández, Enrique Perales, Carlos Gómez Sánchez, Lorenzo Pacheco, Máximo Mosquera, Alejandro González, Ernesto Morales, Luis Guzmán, Eliseo Morales, Cornelio Heredia, and Valeriano López.

In the wake of participating on Ecuadoran soil, Fernández no longer competed in the continental events.

Six National Championships From 1934 to 1949

Before embarking on a seven-month tour of Europe, Fernández was the most outstanding player in the 1932 National Cup with 11 goals. But that wasn’t enough to win the event. A total of eight clubs sent delegations: Alianza Lima, Sports Tabaco, Ciclista Lima, Sportive Union, Sport Progreso, Tarapacá Ferrocarril, Circolo Sportivo Italiano and Universitario.

Soccer became a national level when the domestic tournament began in the 1920s, making it one of the oldest events in the history of Peruvian sport.

By 1933, Universitario’s amateur side again made the final, but was runner-up and their star was top scorer for the second time in a row. Despite the loss, he had captured the attention of the spectators as no other sportsman when he produced nine goals in the men’s football national league.

After winning experience in European countries, Fernández and his fellow Peruvian athletes moved back to Lima to attend the 1934 domestic league. The youthful Universitario side reached the podium in the country’s top soccer division (Almanaque Mundial, 1977). Alianza Lima was extraordinary beaten by the Limean squad, beginning one of South America’s greatest derbies. AL and Lolo’s club are arch rivals and matches between two clubs are referred to as “El Clásico” (Newton, 2011). During that year, Fernández began to make a name for himself in the history of Peru’s football as he was the tournament’s top scorer.

The 1935 event was an event with five soccer clubs. It produced a surprise winner: Sport Boys. Fernández’s squad placed third.

By 1938, Universitario won the bronze medal. In the next year, the Limean side became one of the first clubs of Peru to appoint a foreign manager: Jack Greenwell of the United Kingdom. Under Geenwel’s guidance, Fernández and his fellow mates earned the national football league title with nine wins, three draws and two losses —improving on their third place finish in the past cup (Almanaque Mundial, 1977). Extraordinary, the Cañete-born athlete was the tournament’s dominant player in 1939 (Witzig, 2006).

In the wake of Fernández’s participation in the South American Cup, Universitario came close to a second successive tournament in 1940.

In 1941, the Lima-based club obtained the Peruvian trophy, after a series of home-and-home soccer matches. The Limean squad showed why it was one of the most powerful clubs on home soil. In the finals, there were wins over Atlético Chalaco (1-0) and Alianza Lima (3-1). The championship had been postponed for a while because of Peru’s participation in the South American Cup.

In the mid-1940s, Universitario came the attention when they won back-to-back national championships (Witzig, 2006). After breaking his own personal record of 15 goals in 1939, Lolo picked up a total of 16 goals in 1945. Curiously, these titles can be attributed to the Fernández family: Arturo, Eduardo and Lolo were members of that team.

Assembling one of the most powerful teams in the history of Peru’s football, Lima’s club earned the trophy in 1946. The key to the Peruvian club was the trio of Victor Espinoza, Eduardo and Lolo Fernández. Under a new system of qualifying matches, the Limean side obtained 11 wins.

Toward the end of his career, Lolo and his club recaptured the trophy: it defeated Atlético Chalaco 4-3 to claim the first place in the Peruvian Championship in 1949 (Almanaque Mundial, 1977). In that year, the club celebrated its 25th anniversary.

A Universitario Icon

In contrast to players from other parts of the world, Fernández was not an international player, being one of the few footballers who had stayed with one club (Universitario) his entire athletic career despite several offers from top clubs (including Racing club of Argentina, Peñarol of Uruguay and Colo Colo of Chile). He refused, citing his strong connections to Universitario. This club is one of the most-supported squads in Peru. Curiously, Lolo remains Universitario’s all-time goalscorer with 157 goals.

Fernández, at the age of 40, retired from the world of soccer in the early 1950s during a series of exhibition matches in a stadium built by the country’s head of state Manuel Odría. On August, 30, 1953, his team had a sensational victory over his traditional rival Alianza Lima (4-2). Here, Lolo scored a hat-trick, among the most notable of his more than 157 goals during his career with the Lima-based club.

Before an audience of some 30,000 spectators, Fernández played only six minutes with Universitario during a game against Centro Iqueño, the darkest day for Peru’s football. His presence was symbolic in a memorable event at Lima’s national stadium. He left the national stadium to a roaring ovation.

After retiring from soccer, he worked mostly with top junior soccer teams from Universitario.

After a battle with Alzheimer, on September 17, 1996, Lolo Fernández died in a Lima hospital at the age of 83. It was a great loss to South America’s sport.

Rivaled only by Teófilo Cubillas, he has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards both within and outside Peru, including a museum. The country’s legendary Olympian was immortalized by Lorenzo Humberto Soto Mayor, who wrote a song entitle “Lolo Fernández”, a tribute to the Peruvian footballer. On October 27, 1952, the country’s ruler Odría conferred him the Sports Laurels, the highest sports award of Peru. In the early 1950s, the Universitario stadium was renamed in his honor (Witzig, 2006). Within Latin America, several sports-oriented magazines and Spanish-language newspapers have devoted many pages to Lolo.

Lolo Fernández died in the mid-1990s, but the legacy of this Olympic carries on. He was so advanced for his time and place. A man that always worked with love for his homeland country of Peru and a personal hero of mine.

Further Reading

(1)- Almanaque Deportivo Mundial 1977, Editorial América, Ciudad de Panamá, 1976 (Spanish)

(2)- Almanaque Deportivo Mundial 1976, Editorial América, Ciudad de Panamá, 1975 (Spanish)

(3)- Almanaque Guayaquil Total 2003, Editarsa, Guayaquil, 2002 (Spanish)

(4)- Campomar, Andreas. ¡Golazo!: A History of Latin American Football, Quercus, 2014

(5)- —————- Golazo!: The Beautiful Game From the Aztecs to the World Cup: The Complete History of How Soccer Shaped Latin America, Penguin, 2014

(6)- Dunmore, Tom. Historical Dictionary of Soccer, Scarecrow Press, 2011

(7)- “Fuimos Heroes”. 170 Años Suplemento Especial, El Comercio, 4 de mayo del 2009 (Spanish)

(8)- Grasso, John. Historical Dictionary of Boxing, Scarecrow Press, 2013

(9)- Guevara Onofre, Alejandro & Chaname Orbe, Raúl. Enciclopedia Mundototal 1999, Editorial San Marcos, 1998 (Spanish)

(10)- Hill, Christopher. Hitler’s Olympics: The Berlin Olympic Games,The History Press, 2011

(11)- Loveman, Brian. For la Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America, Rowman & Littlefield, 1999

(12)- Mandell, Richard D. The Nazi Olympics, University of Illinois Press, 1971

(13)- Murray, Bill & Murray, William. The World’s Game. A History of Soccer, University of Illinois Press, 1998

(14)- Newton, Paula. Viva Travel Guides Machu Picchu and Cusco, Viva Publishing Network, 2011

(15)- Parrish, Charles & Nauright, John. Soccer Around the World, ABC-CLIO, 2014

(16)- Risolo, Donn. Soccer Stories: Anecdotes, Oddities, Lore, and Amazing Feats, University of Nebraska, 2010

(17)- Reyna, Claudio & Woitalla, Michael. More Than Goals: The Journey From Backyard Games To World Cup Competition, Human Kinetics, 2004

(18)- Walters, Guy. Berlin Games: How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream, Hachette UK, 2012

(19)- Witzig, Richard. The Global Art of Soccer, CusiBoy Publishing, 2006

Alejandro Guevara Onofre: Within a span of three years, Alejandro has produced a host of high-quality articles/essays about cultures of the world, “re-discovering countries” and exploring exotic locations -from Chad to Vietnam, from Kosovo to the paradise island of Dominica – and new biographies (from such disparate individuals as Lionel Messi, Halle Berry, Jose Gamarra Zorrilla… ). He also has made a name for himself as an expert on Summer Olympics, becoming the top “Olympian author” at EzineArticles.com; stories based on athletic perseverance and Olympian spirit in global sports, including the United States of America. Under this backdrop, he has declared himself as “the world’s No. 1 fan of the Olympics”. As a keen sports fan, he says “I am passionate about sport–writing about it, playing it, watching it, and talking… ”

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Alejandro_Guevara_Onofre/79627

The 5 Most Effective Diets This Decade – A Review

Out of the thousands of diets that have been written over the years 5 really stand out as being the most effective. One of them, Weight Watchers, has been around for over 40 years, while the others have been introduced more recently. One of them, the 9th Law Diet, is only a year old. Although each diet has philosophical differences on the best way to lose weight, they all are effective and have shown to be safe.

Here is a summary of each diet. Each summary includes information about the general philosophy, type of foods, overall expense of each diet, as well as the most commonly attributed pros and cons. The diets are listed in no particular order. These are just the top five weight loss diets this decade based on the formerly listed criteria.

Skinny Bitch: This diet was written by two fiery and passionate best friends who are proud to call themselves skinny bitches. Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin call Skinny Bitch, a no-nonsense, tough-love guide for savvy girls who want to stop eating crap and start looking fabulous. Skinny Bitch is definitely telling it to you straight. The way your best girlfriend would tell you over a cocktail.

These girls make no apologies for the attitude, wit, and even the language found in this colorful guide to basically getting your ass in gear once and for all. They refer to sugar as the devil, and themselves as pigs, and encourage you to get a sweet ass. They love food just as much as anyone. But, they have also learned a successful way to enjoy food and enjoy eating without depriving themselves and maintaining sexy little bodies.

The diet lets you eat all the carbohydrate packed goodness you could ever want including bread, potatoes, pasta, cakes, cookies and muffins. Of course, nothing good ever comes for free, so what is the catch? No dairy. No meat. No sugar or artificial sweeteners. Sound a little vegan? That is because it is, and Skinny Bitch is even endorsed by P.E.T.A.

These skinny girls don’t like to feel hungry and they don’t like to feel like they’re being deprived. And they know you’re the exact same way. There is plenty to eat when you decide to make the switch to Skinny Bitch. The basic premise is simple: being skinny means being healthy. The two ideas are not independent of one another. They come right out and show the flaws of some of the more popular diets around, probably some you have followed yourself. They say in the end, those diet programs are quick fixes that will never help you get a grip on your overall health and wellness.

Skinny Bitch will educate you about the foods you’re eating, how and why they have the effects on your body that they do and where you have been going wrong all along. They release you from the constraints of counting calories, but tell you to start reading all of those food labels. The expense is the cost of the book, Skinny Bitch. The book itself is an entertaining, albeit brash, read. The diet is perfect for vegetarians or vegans. The book can be purchased online and through all major booksellers

South Beach: If you are looking for a diet plan that has grown wildly popular over the past few years, gives your eating habits a dramatic makeover, and shares the name of one of the world’s favorite beaches, then the South Beach Diet is for you. Dr. Arthur Agatston, a cardiologist, created this friendly contrast to other prohibitive weight-loss plans and offers a chance to achieve success where you might have previously failed.

The South Beach Diet differs from its low carbohydrate competitor Atkins, in that it restricts saturated fats, which are linked with health problems like heart disease and high cholesterol. It promises that cravings for sugars, sweets and other carbohydrates will disappear as you go along because the diet is supposed to keep blood sugar levels maintained.

The South Beach Diet has three separate phases in which in each phase, you wean yourself away from certain foods and incorporate other South Beach Diet friendly foods. The diet promises that you will lose 8-12 pounds in the first two weeks as long as you adhere to the guidelines.

The South Beach Diet supports a clean way of eating that is void of refined sugars and trans fats. It also has thousands of satisfied clients, updated research in the 2008 release South Beach Diet: Supercharged, and a maintenance plan after weight loss goals have been achieved.

A problem is the fact that many South Beach Diet food products contain sugar-alcohols, which may cause diarrhea and other GI tract problems. The best recommendation is to adhere to the diet without consuming all the specially made products.

The diet has various phases. The first phase lasts for two weeks and has you remove starches like bread, pasta and rice, potatoes, fruits, milk, yogurt, honey and baked goods. Sugars are completely eliminated. During the first phase of South Beach, you will enjoy three balanced meals and some snacks that should include lean meats and fish, eggs, low-fat cheese, fresh vegetables, beans and nuts.

Phase two of the South Beach Diet will allow you to slowly re-introduce fruits, whole-grain breads and pastas. You will choose just one carbohydrate and include that in one meal each day for one week. Phase two will continue until you meet your goal weight. You will begin the maintenance, or third, phase of South Beach once you have met your goal weight. It is here that you will put to practice all that you learned in phases one and two.

The cost is the price of the book, South Beach, which is available online as well as all major book outlets. There is also a complete line of South Beach Diet foods that can be purchased in your grocery store from cereals to frozen meals. But many of the nutrition bars and snack items contain artificial sweeteners, which have been known to induce gastrointestinal problems.

The 9th Law Diet: This is a relatively new diet that has been sweeping across the country due to its simplicity and overall effectiveness. The 9th Law Diet was created by a physiology professor out of the St. Louis area. He is well known on the web as Professor Jay, but his real name is Jay Snaric.

The diet was formally created after a student of professor Jays lost over 90 pounds following his weight loss guidelines. The student convinced the professor to get it into the hands of so many people who really need it. Professor Jay created a website where he gives the diet away for free, as well as offers on-going email support. The rest is history, as the 9th Law Diet has swept across the country and around the world in record time. Thousands of people have lost major weight and have changed their lives with the 9th Law Diet.

The 9th Law Diet emphasizes cutting out what he refers to as negative carbohydrates and fats, and incorporating more positive carbohydrates and fats. Its emphasis on fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and heart-healthy fats is an eating plan that is full of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids Support for this diet comes from the science provided by Harvard Medical school and other predominate members of the medical science community. Professor Jay Snaric himself has studied human physiology, nutrition, and health at New York University, The Medical University of South Carolina, and University of Southern Illinois.

The 9th Law Diet does not just promote dieting, but overall behavioral and lifestyle changes. As stated earlier, you can get the 9th Law Diet for free at secretloss.com. The cost is zero. At the very least this diet is worth a read, and subscribing to Professor Jays mailing list is well worth your time. It’s not coincidence that this diet has grown is popularity so fast.

Jillian Michaels, The Biggest Loser: The biggest loser background Fitness guru, Jillian Michaels, known for her tough approach for losing weight on NBCs The Biggest Loser, has written a guide on how to drop those pesky last 10 or 15 pounds in 30 days. Making the Cut: The 30-Day Diet and Fitness Plan for the Strongest, Sexiest You sets itself apart from the myriad of fitness and weight loss books at your local bookstore because Michaels’ program uses the process of oxidizing as a way to determine what kind of a metabolism your body has in order to lose weight effectively.

Michaels takes you through the steps to determine what kind of an oxidizer you are: slow, balanced or fast. Your new body classification then dictates what you will eat supported by Jillian’s own menus and recipes. She promises that you will feel comfortable in a bikini if you commit to her disciplined fitness and diet regimen. As part of Making the Cut, you must take a body fat percentage test and a “fit test” before starting the program as a measure to evaluate your pre and post self.

Michaels does not under estimate the power of the mind in the battle to lose weight. She includes helpful tips and advice for how to improve self-esteem and confidence. The book is also full of various exercises to improve strength, flexibility and endurance. Michaels also unveils some well-kept celebrity diet secrets to get your body prepared before a big event.

The diet is Inexpensive and personalized. The program focuses on the mental aspect of losing weight in addition to the exercise and nutrition components – Jillian Michaels is a popular weight loss coach with nearly 20 years experience

Michaels supplies a list of recipes and menus for each of the three oxidizer classifications. As part of your commitment to the Making the Cut program, you are supposed to adhere to her menu and calorie plan. During Making the Cut, you will take a fit test which is outlined in the book. The test establishes your level of fit-ness and you are then required to exercise about 5 hours each week. Michaels provides you with various exercises to do. She also has her own line of exercise DVDs that can be purchased at an additional cost over the book.

The cost is $14.95 for the book. Many online booksellers sell new and used books for discounted prices.

There is no refuting Michaels knowledge and training expertise when it comes to getting in shape and losing weight. Her 30-day promise, like any similar promise is no guarantee but it packs a three-pronged approach of diet, exercise and mental awareness to help you to lose those lingering pounds. The clinical science behind her oxidizer theory is scanty but her belief that the road to weight loss is a personal journey that begins with changes in behavior, lifestyle and self-motivation is an important component that many diet plans disregard.

Weight Watchers: It has been more than 40 years since Weight Watchers came on the scene and started helping people live healthier lives. Weight Watchers helps members create a foundation to introduce healthier choices and physical activity into their lives.

The original Weight Watchers plan invites members to weekly meetings where they hold group sessions, helping dieters form a network of support with people sharing similar experiences. Upon arrival, each person checks their weight privately. Meetings are conducted by a trained Meeting Leader who motivates and offers the group support through information about nutrition and fitness.

Members are also welcome to join the Weight Watchers community online. From the comfort of their homes, members can form virtual support groups, monitor progress and access hundreds of approved recipes, like Blue Cheese Muffins, Sweet and Sour Pork, Grilled Beef Fajitas and even delectable treats like Chocolate Mint Brownies. If it’s not convenient to prepare the approved meals at home, they offer a wide variety of frozen meals and point-complimenting menu items at Applebees.

Weight Watchers was made popular by a points system called Flex Plan. A point value is assigned to each food on the comprehensive list of more than 27,000 foods. The Flex Plan allows you to eat the foods you like. Just stay within your daily points and you can still enjoy fried chicken and Diet Pepsi. It is an easy plan to follow, offers great flexibility and has proven successful for more than 40 years. Read this full explanation of how Weight Watchers Points work, or use our free Weight Watchers Points Calculator.

Weight Watchers emphasizes eating more wholesome food through its Core Plan. Members don’t count points, just choose a balanced combination of whole grains, lean meats, fruits and vegetables, fish, poultry, eggs and dairy. Whether you choose the Flex Points or Core Plans, you can find hundreds of delicious, satisfying and good-for-you Weight Watchers recipes right here at Diets In Review. Weight Watchers Online helps its members with 60 workout demonstrations. There are fitness recommendations for all skill levels. As little as $5 a week with their 3-month plan. Weight Watchers is a trusted diet company with 40+ years experience – Programs to suit men, women and all adult ages – Flex Points or Core Plan programs – Choose one-on-one counseling or the online program for anonymity and convenience – Comprehensive Web site membership – Provides exercise guidance – Thousands of recipes and meals to choose from – Partnership with Applebee’s to make dining out more healthful. Counting points can be time-consuming – Web membership detracts from the traditional social aspect of Weight Watchers meetings

Weight Watchers is a tried and true veteran of the weight loss industry. With a variety of methods to choose from for both men and women, you’re almost certain to find the right path for your weight loss journey. Weight Watchers provides support from every aspect of weight loss- so you’re never left without information or support. Food is one of the primary concerns of any dieter and Weight Watchers goes above and beyond most other weight loss programs with thousands of recipes that anyone, dieting or not, will find tempting and delicious. If their style appeals to you, go for it.

Overall, all of these diets have proven to be very successful for many people, and have changed many lives. The key is finding the diet which works best for you. Obesity increases your risk of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Obesity is an epidemic. We need more diets like these to help people get their health back.

Dr. Kimberly Lee has been studying and guiding on health, fitness, and diet for over 15 years. She works as a nutrition expert consultant for several major companies.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Kimberly_Lee/269368

83 Year Old Law Still On The Books That Regulate How Wine Is Sold And It Is Expensive For Consumers

Alcoholic oriented beverage sales are a highly regulated system that is in all 50 states. These systems are known as both a Three-Tier System and the Control System Model that in employed in 18 Control States/jurisdictions. Basically, the Three-Tier System is (very simply): Manufacturers provide alcoholic products to Wholesalers/Distributors who then distribute these products to Retailers, and finally the Consumer gets into the mix.

Why must government make a relatively simple distribution issue so complicated? We are talking about alcoholic beverages and wine in particular. When there are few options the consumer generally loses. Every industry has some form of subterfuge or idiosyncrasies that consumers do not understand, especially when there is no added value to a morass of regulations. For wine lovers (and all alcohol beverage consumers) the reference is to the complex system of getting wine to consumers. The logic is somewhat confusing if not totally contradictory. The Three-Tier Distribution System is a government mandated system that must be followed to get alcoholic beverages to the consumer, while protecting fragile consumers from themselves. Unfortunately, the system is not uniform from state to state relative to laws regulating wine, spirits and beer and has become a veritable moving target for consumers to debate and understand.

This classification of state laws was mandated by the Federal government in 1933 and the system was left to the states to implement and manage. Basically, the Three-Tier Distribution System mandates the system by which alcoholic wine, spirits and beer producers must employ to get their products to the consumer. Not surprising, there are a plethora of exceptions to the Three-Tier System and the exceptions are based upon individual state regulations. Nonetheless, specific to wines, the system mandates (albeit with exceptions to the rule) that producers can sell their wines only to wholesale distributors who then sell to retailers, and only retailers may sell to consumers. One glaring exception is consumer direct wine sales at the wineries or on-premise winery sales. Obviously, at every level in the distribution process, there is a mark-up added to the products costs. This politically mandated control system adds approximately 30% and more to the product cost.

If you are a consumer from Utah reading this, you are a criminal if you bring back a case of your favorite wine from California; two bottles is your limit! Technically, the Three-Tier System is not about tax collection entirely, those mechanisms are already in place that ensure governments (state and federal) get their taxes on the alcoholic products produced and sold.

In general, 32 states allow private companies to be distributors and 18 states employ some or all of the “Control Distribution Model” in which the state owns the distribution for retail sales. Washington and Pennsylvania are two such states.

Generally, state governments allow or give approval for a private company to be the only distributor in a state or region within a state. Even in those states with multiple distributors, those distributors’ territories are protected by state laws which are ordained by state governments. To illustrate the detrimental effect such a system can have, imagine if states could authorize/endorse only one gasoline distributor to sell within their state. Wouldn’t that be a monopoly?

The question that begs asking is: How did we get into this convoluted system of getting wine (beer and spirits also) to the consumer? The Three-Tier System is not about getting taxes to state and federal government. Collecting that tax was decided long ago. The history of any tax on alcohol goes back to 1791 when Alexander Hamilton proposed an excise tax to help fund a federal government. The common man felt this “tax” targeted the citizen excessively. Alcoholic drink was considered a staple of life, part of the social fabric, and was akin to taxing the air they breathed. Thus eventually the Whiskey Rebellion came into being in Pennsylvania. But, the excise tax remains to this day.

It was the passage of the 21st Amendment, repeal of the 18th Amendment, which gave the individual states the right to control most aspects of alcohol beverage (beer, wine, and spirits) distribution. Depending on one’s predilection, two of the stated objectives of the Three Tier System were: states were interested in keeping citizens from excess consumption and yet they wanted to encourage sales for the tax revenues. It might have even been a way to reward a few companies with franchises. In any event, this evolved into the Three-Tier Distribution System in 1933.

The NABCA represents the Control States Systems (similar to the Three-Tier System but a state owned distribution system) and promote the benefits of a Three-Tier System/Control State System:

Regulatory-Each Tier in the System is responsible for ensuring laws are executed; self regulation.
Economic Benefits-“Impacts society with tax dollars” which support government programs.
Public Health Benefits-Can protect public from tainted alcohol.
Commercial Benefits-Manufacturers have equal access to the marketplace, thus more consumer choices.

The threats to the Three Tier System/Control State System’s come in the form of de-regulation, which is gaining a consumer voice and advocacy. In most instances the large manufacturer industry leaders want to keep the Three-Tier System for some obvious reasons. Remember in the late 1970’s the airline industry was deregulated and predictions that America’s airline industry would crumble. It did not.

Outside of the Three-Tier System, other industry distributor networks exist by voluntary/free choice participation of their customers. These are distributors who provide a service for a competitive fee. The Three-Tier System is based solely upon government mandates at the state level. In fairness, this industry generally promotes stated values of: Encouraging moderation, Generate tax revenues for governments, Avoiding/monitoring aggressive marketing by producers and sales practices, and Facilitate state and local control of alcoholic beverages.

From a consumer viewpoint there might be problems with the system that was put in place 83 years ago:

There is an added 30%, or more, cost added to the product (wine). It would be up to the consumer, and the producer, to ascertain the financial value of these added costs to the product.

It tends to promote monopoly practices in states. Producers have no choice relative to negotiating with a third party relative to getting their products distributed; even at what added costs. Without true competition what leverage do producers control? For sure, small producers can’t compete with big guys when trying to work with a distributor.

Today the Three-Tier System is a conglomeration of distribution companies.

Producers (small wineries) cannot compete on shelf space at the retailer level because the distributor promotes brands based upon revenues they receive from product sales.

Increased costs are disproportionately high on small producers that produce limited wines (varietals).

Large distributors can dictate distribution term to smaller producers.

In a macro market sense, the Three Tier Distribution System may not be competitive for U.S. producers; one size does not fit all.

In some instances a Three Tier Distribution System will not afford a small wine producer access to markets (local or national). A fact of any channel of distribution, sometime it is not financially viable for a distributor to warehouse, sell, deliver and shelf manage wines that are in small production. Even introducing a wine that is new, with limited marketing budget, it can be cost prohibitive.

Note: Beer is one of the alcoholic beverages that have very few exceptions to the rule. With some exceptions, retail sales are through distributors only. However most notably is the “brew pub” which is defined as an establishment that brews and sells its own beer on their own premises.

To avoid getting into a quagmire in discussing distribution of each type of alcohol products let’s stick with wine. Wine distribution, for many reasons, has a lot of deviations from Three Tier System distribution’s general rules and they vary by state. The options for wine distribution are as follows-with significant variations by state:

Direct to Consumer shipments (DtC)
Self Distribution
On Premise sales (at the winery)

As simple as wine sales concepts are, there are many law firms that help wineries navigate the plethora of complex regulations specific to sales in each state and even cities and counties within a state.

With changes and even expansions of other channels, the Three Tier System gets tweaked a little bit year after year as markets emerge and the industry changes. Still, the Three-Tier System is larger than all the other channels combined. The wine industry (in the U.S. and California in particular) has changed greatly as more wineries are started and vineyards/wineries have become tourist destinations. For example, in the very late 1960’s Robert Mondavi had the vision and imagination to make Northern California Wine Country an attraction unto itself. This one event helped expand the on-premise winery channel of distribution through winery tasting room sales and wine clubs.

The craft beer business has also come into being with vengeance and the public has responded. We now have brew pubs and venues with 100’s of beer on tap at a single location and consumers can buy take-out containers of their favorite brews (called growlers-64oz.)

Direct to Consumer – Wine

This is a growing segment of the wine industry and probably has come about from four sources-consumer visits to wineries, organized wine tasting events, recommendations from friends, and restaurant experiences.

If you find an out of state wine you like, it still doesn’t mean you can go on-line, join a winery wine club or call the winery and ask them to ship you a case. The availability still must be determined by such things as state laws, how much wine the winery produces, licenses the wineries with the receiving state and even common carrier agreements.

Ship Compliant and Wines and Vines Analytics reports that DtC (Direct to Consumer) wine shipments increased 15.5% in 2014. That translates to 3.95 million cases of wine. To add some perspective, Gallo produced over 80 million cases for U.S. consumption. The average price of a bottle of wine shipped directly to the consumer was $38.40; a relatively expensive wine.

In 2014, 60% of all Direct to Consumer (DtC) wine shipments were to five states; California, Texas, New York, Florida and Illinois. It also appears that newly enacted changes in state laws in 2014 simplifying DtC shipments were a welcomed change for consumers. In Montana such changes resulted in a 245% increase in DtC sales and in North Dakota there was a corresponding 61% increase.

In summary, 43 states allow shipment of wine to the state and 7 do not. The states not allowing DtC shipments are: Alabama, Delaware, Kentucky, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota (until 2016), and Utah.

As noted earlier, all states either use a Three-Tier Distribution System or a Control System (these are systems that operate like the Three Tier System but are owned and operated by the individual states). Bottom-line, every state controls wine sales to consumers in some form. The exception to these rules is that DtC shipment states allows consumers to buy wine direct from the producer. However, the great equalizer is shipping costs passed along to the consumer which, depending on the volume of the purchase, can be significant. It’s kind of a-pay the distributor or pay the shipper on DtC shipments.

Even in California, held up as being the poster child of DtC shipping, requires a Three-Tier Distributor to bring wine into California from out-of-state wineries.

As reported by Wine Folly, there are only 17% of U.S. wineries that have national distribution. There are various reasons: some wineries are too small to be economically viable for a distributor to carry the brand, the winery may not produce enough labels to make it attractive for a distributor, price point of the wine is too low and/or not enough corresponding volume sales, or a distributor wants to much of a discount to be profitable for a winery. In all of these instances a Direct to Consumer model is a great alternative.


Self-Distribution refers to the ability of a winery to act as their own wholesaler by selling directly to retail and restaurant companies.

Fourteen states allow wineries to Self-Distribute, but it is not an easy process; with an avalanche of bonds to post, licenses, applications, reports and paying excise taxes; all of which are different in each state. Interestingly, California does allow for self distribution for the in-state wineries. Many wineries in California have sales staffs that sell their wines to restaurants and retailers.

Just like the Three-Tier System, Self-Distribution is defined by different rules established by each of the states that allow wineries to Self-Distribute. To illustrate this point with 2 examples: Arizona allows Self-Distribution for wineries producing 20,000 gallons or less of wine. In Illinois an out-of-state winery who produces less than 25,000 gallons annually may Self-Distribute. However, the Self-Distribute exemption allows for the sale of not more than 5,000 gallons of wine to a retailer annually. This just illustrates the complexity of distribution options in various states.

Bottom-line there are approximately 10 states that do not allow any shipments to consumers. In fact, if you’re a resident of Utah and you buy a case of wine during a winery visit in Sonoma, CA, you could be committing a felony offense if you bring that wine back to your home in Utah. In some other states wineries must purchase a yearly permit from the state just to ship to you.


This approach does not require much explanation. But, buying a few bottles of wine and going to your hotel, asking the concierge to ship it for you using your FedEx number… don’t count on it getting delivered unless the hotel has an alcohol shipping license. Solution is to keep the wine with you.

If people are interested in following the events of getting laws changed relative to the Three-Tier System and other related issues, I have been impressed with– Fermentation: The Daily Wine Blog http://www.fermentationwineblog.com put out daily by Wark Communications. There are others but this blog is one that lobby’s politicians on behalf of the wine consumer and the blog is written with an eye towards the consumer.

A casual wine consumer is probably not interested in the politics of wine. Frankly, consumers should be concerned when there may be little added-value for the imposed distribution costs of wine. DtC may be an emerging alternative but the laws are not uniform across states. If you go to a wine mart or even Costco, depending on states, you are probably paying a 30% plus added cost for a Three-Tier System distributor; simply because of an 83 year old law.

Consumers will pay for value received but give the producer or consumer the option of choosing. They will state their preferences at the cash register.


Mr. Lay started Image of Wine http://www.imageofwine.com to manufacture and sell high end wine accessories to corporations as gifts and branding items. These are items may be personalized.

All products are custom manufactured and recongnized for their quality. Inquiries are welcomed by calling: 702-289-4167.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Steven_Lay/1185168

Charter Schools: Passing or Failing?

This study’s objective was to Research of a “choice” school that operates under a performance contract which details specifics as the school’s mission, program, goals, demographics of the students served, methods of assessment, and ways to assess success. Such educational arrangements are known as charter schools, which are publicly funded schools that have greater accountability for academic assessment and fiscal practices, while receiving more independence and experiencing fewer regulations than traditional public schools. Research shows that there is a fair amount of success with this type of contractual education, and that a fair amount of issues accompany the success, such as fluctuating changes in student performance that are immeasurable by test scores. Another issue with the contractual educational facilities that is heating up in recent months is the conflict that arises between this type of learning environment versus the traditional public school system. This paper examines differing authorities in an attempt to determine whether charter schools are achieving their intended missions, or falling short of their goals – the verdict of this author’s research is that the structure is conducive to innovative practices, although the overall end results demonstrated by charter schools does not measure up to their tangible and intangible costs.

Charter Schools: Passing or Failing

This study into the report card of charter schools in the United States will attempt to decide whether this mode of education is more or less successful in the quest of education. The unique research covered in this study represents the most recent journal articles that are related to these public schools that are operated independently of the local school board. Charter schools being unique in that they differ in various degrees from the curriculum and educational philosophy of other schools in the same system, they can also take the form of experimental public schools for mainly primary, but some secondary, education.

Charter schools do not charge tuition and frequently have lottery based admissions. They, therefore, provide an alternative to public schools, oftentimes offering a curriculum that specializes in a certain field– e.g. arts, mathematics, etc. Others simply seek to provide a better and more efficient general education than nearby public schools.

Public school funding in the United States is not a product of intelligent design. Funding programs have grown willy-nilly based on political entrepreneurship, interest group pressure, and intergovernmental competition. Consequently, now that Americans feel the need to educate all children to high standards, no one knows for sure how money is used or how it might be used more effectively (Hill, 2008).

These institutions are also exclusive in that some are created and organized by teachers and or parents and or community leaders, in a totally autonomous school environment, while others are state-run charters that are unaffiliated with local school districts and founded by non-profits such as universities and government entities that may appear in clusters across a geographic area.

The term “charter” possibly originated in the 1970s when Ray Budde, a New England university professor, suggested that small groups of teachers be given contracts or “charters” by their local school boards to discover new approaches to education. Albert Shanker, former president of the American Federation of Teachers, then publicized the idea, suggesting that local boards could charter an entire school with union and teacher approval. One of the first charter schools was a well-known institution called the H-B Woodlawn Program, as a part of the educational movements that fueled such innovative education in the 1960s and 1970s, it was established to provide a more individualized and caring environment to students.

As they were originally envisioned, the ideal model of a charter school appeared as a legally and financially autonomous public school – void of tuition, religious affiliation, or discriminatory student admissions. Charter schools were also foreseen to operate much like a private business. In the business sense of being free from many state laws and district regulations, the charter-school beginnings grew on the premise that they were more accountable for student outcomes rather than for processes or inputs that were believed to be enhanced through stipulations such as Carnegie Units and teacher certification requirements.

The charter school movement has roots in a number of other reform ideas, including:

alternative schools
site-based management
magnet schools
public school choice
community-parental empowerment

In the late 1980s Philadelphia started a number of schools-within-schools and called them “charters.” Some of them were schools of choice. The idea was further refined in Minnesota where charter schools were developed according to three basic values: opportunity, choice, and responsibility for results.

In 1991 Minnesota passed the first charter school law, with California following suit in 1992. By 1995, 19 states had signed laws allowing for the creation of charter schools, and by 2003 that number increased to 40 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. From 1997 to 2006 the number of charters in the US grew from 693 to 3,977. Perhaps surprisingly, given this growth, previous work has found mixed evidence on the impacts of charter schools on student performance. However, these studies focus almost exclusively on test scores as the outcome of interest. Thus, one potential explanation for this discrepancy is that charter schools affect student performance in ways that cannot be measured by test scores.

The charter school data is gathered at least annually, collected by mostly independent groups, is largely captured by survey. The U.S. Charter Schools Organization is said to statistics that consist of information related to size, scope, demographics (Figure 1), operations, and management of public charter schools (Charter schools data, n. d.).

It is because of conflicting and diverse initial findings that this research is important to the author’s personal curiosity. On one hand, the appeal of fresh, new approaches to teaching and learning is the stimulus for continued education. On the other hand, a constant vigil over money and test scores to prove the worth of the methodology defeats the main purpose of acting as vehicle for education. The analysis of a sampling of literature is expected to illuminate the more constant and logical explanation of the evidence examined.


In this paper new, longitudinal data from an anonymous large urban school district is used to assess how charter schools affect student discipline, attendance, and retention; these are compared to test score impacts. Using individual fixed-effects analyses shows that schools which begin as charters generate improvements in student behavior and attendance but not test scores. Charters that convert from regular public schools have mixed effects on test scores. While there is evidence of selection into charter schools based on changes in outcomes, these results change little after applying intermittent panel strategies. Finally, there is little evidence that charter schools generate long-term benefits if students return to non-charter schools.

A report prepared by the Center for Education Reform in 2006 states the opportunity posed by charter schools well by saying, “when the charter school concept was born in the days prior to the advent of The No Child Left Behind Act, the bargain was freedom in exchange for accountability” (CER, 2006). As an educational watchdog for learning and teaching communities, the CER felt that charter schools were a chance to try to provide a tailored education to some students through a more micro-managed, yet opportunistic, educational environment and respond to needs expressed by parents, students, and communities (including the teaching community).

According to the National Education Association (NEA), for-profit charter schools rarely outperform traditional public schools, even when the charter receives higher funding. Although the U.S. Department of Education’s findings agree with those of the NEA, their study points out the limitations of such studies and the inability to hold constant other important factors, and notes that “study design does not allow us to determine whether or not traditional public schools are more effective than charter schools” (NEA, 1998).

Counselor interviews, professional journals, litigation, and the most recent data and statistics on the subject of charter schools is evidence that is examined at the primary and secondary levels of education. Many of the inherent organizational challenges found therein, are to be analyzed for themes that are perpendicular and those that are parallel. Earlier reviews on the topic has used the words perverse and “spectacle of fear” to describe charter schools in their failing and miserable attempts to reform the contemporary schools under the guise of the 2002 No Child Left Behind ideal (Granger, 2008). In only a few of the sources consulted in this study has this harsh language been used to describe the effects of charter schooling. The majority of the literary sources have been supportive of the innovation that is placed in those type of schools.

It is the latter positive contributions consulted in this paper, which convinced the writer to theorize that charter schools are one of the fastest growing innovations in education policy because they have a tendency to invoke a positive learning outcome in their students. Broad bipartisan support from governors, state legislators, and past and present secretaries of education contribute to the solidarity of this concept and the general research opinion. In his 1997 State of the Union Address, former President Clinton called for the creation of 3,000 charter schools by the year 2002. In 2002, President Bush called for $200 million to support charter schools. His proposed budget called for another $100 million for a new Credit Enhancement for Charter Schools Facilities Program. Since 1994, the U.S. Department of Education has provided grants to support states’ charter school efforts, starting with $6 million in fiscal year 1995.

Another point of kudos for the charter school system that was evident through this research was the issue of the choice processes that charter students have at their disposal that public schools make available only on a limited and or unobservable basis. Substantiation of these alternatives and support that are more-readily made available to charter school students was noted in a report on the charter school counseling by Stanton-Salazar & Dornbusch (1995) and mentioned in a professional high school journal article entitled, “College Counseling in Charter High Schools: Examining the Opportunities and Challenges”. (Farmer-Hinton & McCullough, 2008). The schools’ staff generally promotes college as a normal and viable postsecondary choice that is communicated through the charter schools counselors’ open relationship with their students.

Responsibility for Results

The mere premise of a charter school is to exhibit results in many major areas. Through the research of this paper, it is evidenced that the charter schools are displaying a great deal of positive results with respect to the subject areas listed in most of their legal charters. The original thesis was that the cost of these results versus the benefit of their results was questionable. During this research, only one professional article was readily available to discuss this particular subject, although there are many legal causes, some are mentioned in this writing, that indicate that this is a huge concern with the public, as well.

There is an important consideration when drafting or revising the legislation for a charter school, however, that addresses “whether to include an appeals process for organizers whose initial proposals are rejected” (The Charter School Roadmap, 1998). Many of these are shown in a report (Table 1) that tracks the variables of applicants within established guidelines.

Many states have seen the concept of charter schools in their state supreme courts on mostly monetary issues, but a unique case of the governing authority over a charter school application for its charter was heard in Beaufort County Board of Education v. Lighthouse Charter School Committee, et al. (1999). This case went a long way towards resolving many of the issues surrounding charter schools in the state of South Carolina. “The Court’s decision made it clear that a local school board has the authority, under the S.C. Charter Schools Act of 1996, to require a charter school applicant to comply with the Act’s provisions before a charter is approved and, once the local board makes a decision concerning a charter school applicant, the local board’s decision must be upheld by the State Department of Education if that decision is supported by substantial evidence on the record” (Duff, White & Turner, LLC, 1999).

Presidential mandates are indicative of the popularity of charter-school types with the constituents and the general public at large. “In the end, school improvement is accomplished through the hard work of school staff, with administrative and parent support” (NEA, 1998) – stated exactly as a common knowledge and belief to the author of this research.

The results of the literature consulted and cited in this paper have been found to emphasize the original theory that the overall benefits produced by charter schools are almost equal to, if they don’t exceed, the cost that is incurred. The fact that this paradigm exists is not believed to be intentional, but rather more of an undefined direction for charter schools and an existing incompetence at truly managing a budget.

Previous research, although truly controversial, was not found to reveal a huge imbalance of the overall end results as opposed to the cost of such at present. Charter schools were found financially unaccountable, whereby their products outweigh the sum of their tangible and intangible costs, by only one professional review. The research of this independent review was even concluded with the following, “recent three initiatives – an R&D intermediary, using charters as the point of the lance, and creation of a level playing field for competition – could set off a wave of innovation and escalating school performance. This, in turn, could tell Americans what they need to spend for effective schools” (Hill, 2008).